Do People With Psychosis Have Specific Difficulties Regulating Emotions?
Tania M. Lincoln, Maike Hartmann, Ulf Köther and Steffen Moritz
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
September 24, 2014
Difficulties in emotion regulation (ER) are present in psychotic disorders, but their precise nature is not yet fully understood and it is unclear which difficulties are unique to psychosis compared with other disorders. This study investigated whether ER difficulties in psychosis are more prominent for the ability to modify emotions or for the ability to tolerate and accept them. Furthermore, it investigated whether ER difficulties occur for sadness, anxiety, anger and shame likewise.
ER skills were assessed in participants with psychotic disorders (n = 37), participants with depression (n = 30) and healthy controls (n = 28) using the Emotion Regulation Skill Questionnaire that asks participants to rate the intensity of different emotions over the past week and the skills employed to handle each of them.
Compared with healthy controls, participants with psychosis showed reduced skills related to awareness, understanding and acceptance of potentially distressing emotions, but not in the ability to modify them. These differences remained significant after controlling for depression. Participants with psychosis showed reduced ER skills in regard to all of the assessed emotions compared with the healthy controls, despite the fact that they only reported sadness as being significantly more intense. The participants with depression showed a similar pattern of ER skills to the psychosis sample, although with a tendency towards even more pronounced difficulties.
It is concluded that psychosis is characterized by difficulties in using specific ER skills related to awareness, understanding and acceptance to regulate anger, shame, anxiety and sadness. These difficulties are not unique to psychosis but nevertheless present a promising treatment target.
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